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|Title:||THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OBJECTIVELY MEASURED HABITUAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN PRESCHOOLERS AND PERIPHERAL ARTERY ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION IN SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN|
|Keywords:||endothelial function;flow-mediated dilation;pediatric;physical activity;brachial;artery|
|Abstract:||The development of atherosclerotic lesions and endothelial cell damage can originate during early childhood. Endothelial cells produce and release vasodilatory chemicals, which dictate the artery’s ability to vasodilate or vasoconstrict. Brachial artery FMD is a non-invasive, reproducible and a sensitive technique used to detect changes in arterial diameter and is correlated with coronary artery endothelial function. Cross-sectional studies have indicated increases in arterial diameter in children between the ages of 6-18 years however, a longitudinal, observational design study has not been conducted to understand how arterial diameters and FMD change over time in children, with considerations for the influences of physical activity and sex. The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of age and sex on arterial diameter and FMD and investigate the effects of habitual moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during both the school-age and preschool years on endothelial function trajectories during the school-age years. Over three years, 418 children between 3-5 years old participated in the HOPP study annually, and 279 of these children attended the lab when they were between 6-12 years old for an additional 3 annual visits in the SKIP study. Habitual MVPA was measured for 7 days in both the HOPP and SKIP studies each year, and FMD was measured each year during SKIP. Linear mixed-effects modeling was implemented to study the trend in FMD and the influence of chronological and biological age, sex and MVPA on arterial function; effects are reported as unstandardized estimates (Est). Boys had larger baseline and peak brachial artery diameters compared to girls (p<0.001). Girls had larger brachial artery FMD compared to boys (6.82±3.39 vs. 6.23±3.50 %, p<0.001). There was an effect of MVPA in the SKIP study on allometrically scaled FMD (Est. -0.017, p=0.03), but not on relative FMD (Est. -0.01, p=0.17). MVPA in the preschool years did not predict school-aged scaled FMD (Est. 0.11, p=0.24) or FMD (Est. -0.003, p=0.64). The observed trends in brachial artery diameter and FMD are in-line with expected changes in growth and maturation in children. Children who engaged in more habitual MVPA during the childhood years, but not the preschool years, demonstrated changes endothelial function during the school-age years.|
|Appears in Collections:||Open Access Dissertations and Theses|
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