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|Title:||Defect Engineering for Silicon Photonic Applications|
|Keywords:||defect, engineering, silicon, photonic, applications, epitaxial regrowth, polycrystalline, annealing|
|Abstract:||<p> The work described in this thesis is devoted to the application of defect engineering in the development of silicon photonic devices. The thesis is divided into simulation and experimental portions, each focusing on a different form of defect engineered silicon: ion implantation induced amorphous silicon and solid-phase epitaxial regrowth suppressed polycrystalline silicon.</p> <p> The simulations are directed at silicon rib waveguide Raman laser applications. It is shown that a uniform, divacancy defect concentration will not enhance Raman gain. The excess optical loss and free carrier lifetime of rib waveguides with remote amorphous silicon volumes were simulated. Net gain was demonstrated depending on the geometry of the structure. For a waveguide structure with rib width, rib height and slab height of W = 1.5, H = 1.5 and h = 0.8 μm respectively, the optimal separation between the edge of the rib and the amorphous region is ~2.0 μm. Surface recombination velocity modification was shown to be an effective means to reduce free carrier lifetime.</p> <p> Experimental work was devoted to the characterization of a novel form of polycrystalline silicon created by amorphizing the entire silicon overlayer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer. Solid-phase epitaxial regrowth of the amorphous silicon is suppressed upon annealing due to the lack of a crystal seed and results in polycrystalline silicon. This material was characterized with ellipsometry, positron annihilation spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The material properties are shown to be heavily dependent on the annealing conditions. Ellipsometry showed that the refractive index at 1550 nm is comparable to crystalline silicon. Positron annihilation spectroscopy showed that the polycrystalline material exhibits a high concentration of vacancy-type defects while vertically regrown crystalline silicon does not. X-ray diffraction showed that the polycrystalline silicon is non-textured, strained in tension and is characterized by grain sizes less than 300 nm.</p> <p> Defect etching and optical measurements using a waveguide geometry were performed in order to characterize the lateral regrowth and the optical loss of the polycrystalline material. Lateral regrowth in the  direction was 1.53 and 0.96 μm for 10 minute anneals at 750 and 900 °C respectively, and at least 2.5 μm at 650 °C. Waveguide optical loss measurements with adjacent polycrystalline regions separated from the rib by at least 5.5 μm showed no separation dependence. The intrinsic optical loss of the polycrystalline material was estimated to be 1.05 and 1.57 dB/cm for TM and TE polarizations after a 900 °C anneal. Vertically regrown c-Si was shown to exhibit less than 3.0 dB/cm optical loss after annealing at 550 °C .</p>|
|Appears in Collections:||Digitized Open Access Dissertations and Theses|
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