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|Title:||EXPLORING THE PRO-APOPTOTIC FUNCTION OF BIM|
|Keywords:||apoptosis;cell death;cancer;Bcl-2 family|
|Abstract:||Apoptosis is a type of programmed cell death which plays a fundamental role in maintaining homeostasis in multi-cellular organisms. The Bcl-2 family has been identified as the central players in regulation of apoptosis. It consists of anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g Bcl-XL) and pro-apoptotic proteins which are further classified as BH3 proteins (e.g Bim, Bid) and effector proteins (e.g Bax, Bak). BH3-proteins regulate apoptosis by activating the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bak to permeabilize mitochondria, and/or by inhibiting anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-XL and Bcl-2. In this study, we employed fluorescence spectroscopy and functional assays with full-length Bim and showed that major Bim isoforms have similar activities in vitro. Bim preferably activates Bax over Bak while Bid preferably activates Bak. Bim displayed a unique binding to Bcl-XL so that the Bim-Bcl-XL complex is resistant to BH3-mimic drug ABT-263 treatment while Bid does not. A Bcl-XL enhancer BH3 TCTP was also shown to interact with Bim-Bcl-XL and Bid-Bcl-XL complex differently, where a single mutation abolished its enhancement of Bid-Bcl-XL but not Bim-Bcl-XL. Closer investigation of the dual apoptotic functions of the BH3-protein Bim revealed that the C-terminal membrane binding domain (MBD) is unexpectedly also involved both in binding of Bim to Bax in solution and in activating Bax. Multiple mutations in this domain reduced or abolished binding to membranes but did not affect binding to Bax or correlate with Bax activation. Deletion eliminated binding to and activation of Bax, but not binding to or inhibition of Bcl-XL. Thus MBD mediates binding to both membranes and Bax separately. On the other hand, although the MBD is not the determining factor for interactions with Bcl-XL, our data demonstrates Bim MBD also plays a major role in binding to Bcl-XL. The C-terminal MBD was shown to be contributing to the ABT-263 resistance of Bim-Bcl-XL complex by directly interacting with Bcl-XL. We discovered additional interactions between the MBD of Bim and both Bcl-XL and Bcl-2. Our data suggested a novel topology and mechanism for the Bim-MBD that positions the central hydrophobic residues of the MBD appropriately for binding to Bcl-XL.|
|Appears in Collections:||Open Access Dissertations and Theses|
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|Chi_Xiaoke_201609_PhD.pdf||Thesis||6.59 MB||Adobe PDF||View/Open|
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