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|Title:||Ion exchange equilibrium: selectivity coefficient and ion exchange capacity, heavy metals removal, and mathematical modelling|
|Keywords:||Ion Exchange Resins;Selectivity Coefficient;Ion Exchange Capacity;Heavy Metals;Mathematical Modelling|
|Abstract:||This research conducted equilibrium experiments to determine ion exchange equilibria data for the inorganic cations Ca2+, Na+, and NH4+ for binary cation exchange involving sulfonic acid, polystyrene gel resins saturated with Na+ or NH4+. A linear least-square fitting was developed to find representative ion exchange capacity (IEC) and selectivity coefficient (K) values. Equilibrium experiments were utilized to test the developed new linearization method for binary systems: Ca-NH4; Ca-Na; and Na-NH4 using three commercial strong acid cation (SAC) exchange resins. It was determined that SAC exchange resins saturated with NH4+ were more selective towards Ca2+ than resins saturated with Na+. The valency and the size of the hydrated radius of the counterion influenced the selectivity of binary systems. A higher valence and a smaller hydrated radius resulted in an increased affinity of the resin for ions. Results can be used to estimate the technical and economic feasibility of a design process along with the estimation of the effect of a change in operating conditions. In addition, the removal of toxic heavy metals was also investigated with an initial metal concentration of 0.1 mg/L. Results showed that the maximum percent removal of toxic heavy metal ions, Cr3+, Pb2+, Ba2+, and Cd2+ ranged from ~ 95-99% when present in a solution containing a high molar concentration of Ca2+, Na+, and NH4+. It was observed that SAC exchange resins can effectively remove toxic heavy metals at very low concentrations. The high selectivity that SAC exchange resins possess towards heavy metals proves that they can be used as a pretreatment method for the removal of toxic heavy metals from municipal and industrial wastewaters. Moreover, the performance of SAC exchange resins for the removal of Ca2+ from waste solutions was investigated through computer modelling. Results showed that ion exchange is an efficient method for the removal of Ca2+. A sensitivity analysis showed that the variation in K and IEC greatly influenced the breakthrough time as an increase in both parameters resulted in greater Ca2+ uptake. Modelling results can be used to optimize the design of ion exchange systems for the pretreatment of inorganic cations which can reduce membrane scaling.|
|Appears in Collections:||Open Access Dissertations and Theses|
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