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|Title:||Early Childhood Research across Cultures|
|Other Titles:||Early Childhood Research across Cultures: A Scoping Study of Early Childhood Interventions across Language and Country Boundaries|
|Authors:||Chapman, Brandon J.|
Lavis, John N.
|Keywords:||early childhood;early childhood development;early intervention;early childhood intervention;Spanish;Portuguese;scoping study;scoping review;global health;knowledge transfer;cross-cultural research;comparative research;early childhood care and education;Mexico;Brazil;Latin America;Spain;Portugal;Central America;South America|
|Abstract:||ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Research evidence strongly supports the influence of quality nutrition, cognitive stimulation and nurturing care on the extent that a child reaches full development. Reaching developmental milestones results in positive outcomes for individual health and well-being as well as communal stability and prosperity. Interventions to improve early childhood development are not a recent concept; however, the interaction of one early childhood development outcome on others form a complex, often interdependent, relationship. The complexity of a child's development also includes the child's family, home environment, community and national context. The complex and dynamic setting for implementing early childhood interventions requires more than efficiency or knowledge. It requires patience, cultural competency and a compassion to engage and support a child's family, society and nation. Interventions that are effective in multiple cultures or can be scaled up to a regional or global level are rare and usually focus on one aspect of early childhood development (ECD), like protein intake to prevent stunting. Context does matter, and ECD research is dispersed over vastly different political systems and often focused on specific people groups or subcultures. The scope and intensity of ECD research in the world has not been described and is often unknown to English-speaking researchers who are not personally connected by relationship or literacy to other languages and cultures. PURPOSE: The purpose of this scoping study is to answer the research question: "What is being researched related to early childhood development interventions with children six years old and younger in Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries?” A scoping study of published, peer-reviewed literature on interventions in early childhood development in English, Spanish and Portuguese was performed to understand the concepts in research on early childhood development (ECD). The thesis presents interventions in early childhood development and their usage in Mexico, Central and South America in particular and also in Europe and Africa because of the Spanish and Portuguese languages spoken there. The thesis highlights risk factors, assessment tools and interventions from peer-reviewed research providing a scope of ECD interventions for this world area. SEARCH METHODS : Databases searched were related to global health, health sciences, nursing and allied health, psychology and education. They were Global Health, Embase, Medline with PubMed e-ahead of print, PsycInfo, CINAHL, ERIC, LILACS and IBECS. The search strategy and data collection was guided by the research question to be thorough and methodical. Exclusion criteria were utilized to screen more than seven hundred articles to retrieve eighty-six articles that included the correct populations, relevant countries, ECD interventions and early childhood outcomes. FINDINGS: Macro and micro-context risk factors in early childhood development were highlighted across the literature. They were lower maternal education, informal maternal employment, larger household size, lower wealth index and rural residence. Findings related to child or home-centered interventions revealed varied but some positive outcomes in national programmes in Mexico, Brazil, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Colombia and Portugal. The research across all countries in literature found positive impact on early childhood development from age-dependent nutrition, higher socio-economic status and education in mothers, stimulating parent-child interactions and nurturing home environment. CONCLUSIONS: While a scoping study of ECD provides an overview of the work happening and of the relevant key concepts, the eighty-six included studies can hardly be considered representative of all childhood development interventions being implemented or researched. Some state or national governments and non-government organizations implement early childhood interventions without publishing in a peer-reviewed journal. Many more interventions are not evaluated or monitored. Increased collaboration and networking between researchers and countries is needed. Necessary partnerships between educators, researchers and policy-makers based on national strengths across the globe can facilitate better sharing of knowledge and assessment of appropriate interventions for a population's needs. Further monitoring, evaluation and publishing of interventions in this region of the world is required. M.Sc. Thesis - Brandon James Chapman; McMaster University - Global Health|
|Description:||A scoping study of early childhood research in Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries for improved well-being worldwide through collaboration and knowledge transfer|
|Appears in Collections:||Open Access Dissertations and Theses|
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