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|Title:||The Effects of Amino Acids and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Inhibitors on Fluid Secretion and Ion Transport by Isolated Malpighian Tubules of Rhodnius Prolixus and Drosophila Melanogaster|
|Keywords:||amino acids;mitogen;kinase (mapk) inhibitors;fluid secretion;ion transport;isolated malpighian tubules;rhondnius prolixus;drosophila melanogaster|
|Abstract:||Insect haemolynph typically contains very high levels of free amino acids 50 1 00 times that which is normal for mammalian plasma. This study examines the modulatory effects of amino acids on fluid secretion and ion transport by isolated MTs of Rhodnius prolixus and Drosophila melanogaster. The results show that the secretion rates of isolated Malpighian tubules of both Rhodnius and Drosophila are modulated by the presence of specific amino acids in the bathing saline. Some amino acids are stimulatory, some are inhibitory and others have little or no effect. Glutamine appears to be particularly important as a stimulant of fluid secretion. As well, secreted fluid pH and Na +concentration increase and K+ concentration decreases in response to glutamine. Amino acids do not appear to be important as metabolite. in Rhodnius tubules, nor do they act to draw significant amounts of water into the lumen by osmosis. Significant stimulation of fluid secretion can be achieved by physiological levels of particular amino acids, whereas those amino acids that inhibit fluid secretion only do so at concentrations much above those at which they occur naturally in the haemolymph. Amino acids are known to be compatible osmolytes and may be acting to maintain cell homeostasis and thus to sustain fluid secretion. The passive movement of amino acids may result in cell volume changes, and some form of osmosensor is may be coupled to activation of specific kinases to produce the observed increases in fluid secretion. The effects of several kinase inhibitors were therefore examined. The glutamine dependent increase in MT fluid secretion is blocked by two inhibitors of the stress activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathway, SP600125 and dicumoral. Inhibitors of other kinases (PKA, PKC, PKG, PI-3, p38, ERK and MEK), did not block glutamine's effects on fluid secretion rate. Alterations in cytoskeletal structure appear not to be required because cytoskeletal disrupting agents did not block the glutamine dependent inc~ease in fluid secretion, nor was the increase dependent upon protein synthesis. Results of this study are the first to suggest a role for the SAPK pathway in the control of fluid secretion rates by insect Malpighian tubules.|
|Appears in Collections:||Digitized Open Access Dissertations and Theses|
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