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|Title:||Effects of Chronic Cadmium Exposure on Juvenile Rainbow Trout: Protective Effects of Calcium and Application of Biotic Ligand Modelling|
|Other Titles:||Effects of Chronic Cadmium Exposure on Trout|
|Advisor:||Wood, C. M.|
McDonald, D. G.
Playle, R. C.
|Abstract:||Juvenile rainbow trout were chronically exposed to cadmium in hard water, soft water, and in calcium-supplemented soft water in order to understand the effects of long term cadmium exposure in freshwater fish. A particular goal was to characterize changes in gill cadmium burden and the cadmium-binding properties of the gills during chronic sublethal exposures, so as to examine the applicability of the acute gill surface metal binding model or Biotic Ligand Model to trout chronically exposed to cadmium. Trout were exposed for 30 days to sublethal concentrations of cadmium in: a) moderately hard, Hamilton tap water (Ca = 1000 μM), b) synthetic soft water (Ca = 130 μM), or c) calcium-supplemented soft water (Ca = 260, 470, 770, and 1200 μM Ca). For both the hard and soft water cadmium exposures, no effects were observed on growth, swimming performance, and whole body ions. Growth and whole body and plasma Ca²⁺ concentrations were similar for all treatments in the calcium-supplemented soft water experiment; however, swimming performance was significantly reduced for the 470 μM Ca + Cd exposed fish. Acclimation to cadmium occurred in the hard water and lower concentrations of calcium-supplemented exposures but not in the soft water exposure. Cadmium accumulation was greatest in kidneys and gills and was directly related to cadmium exposure concentration. Tissue metal burdens were reduced with increased water calcium concentrations. Affinity of the gill for cadmium and the number of binding sites for cadmium decreased at higher water calcium concentrations. Affinity of the gill for Cd decreased with chronic cadmium exposure but binding site numbers increased with chronic Cd exposure. The acute gill binding model or Biotic Ligand Model, originally developed in soft water, was successfully applied to fish in both hard and soft water; however, complications arose when extending the model to fish chronically exposed to cadmium at various water calcium concentrations.|
|Appears in Collections:||Digitized Open Access Dissertations and Theses|
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