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|Title:||THE SPICY, THE EVERLASTING AND THE UNEXPECTED: INVESTIGATING THREE COMPOUNDS THAT SUPPRESS MACROPHAGES AND MYOFIBROBLASTS TO REDUCE BIOMATERIAL-INDUCED FIBROSIS|
|Keywords:||capsaicin;macrophage phenotype;fibrosis;poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA);myofibroblast;inflammation;polydimethylsiloxane;polydopamine;fibrinogen;prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)|
|Abstract:||Capsaicin, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and polydopamine (PDA) were used to target macrophage and myofibroblast activity to reduce biomaterial-induced fibrosis. The lifetime and efficacy of implantable biomedical devices are determined by the foreign body response. Immediately after implantation, proteins nonspecifically adsorb onto the material and initiate inflammation. Macrophages recruited to the site can differentiate into M1 and M2 phenotypes and upregulate inflammation and fibrosis which interferes with the intended function. M1 macrophages secrete pro-inflammatory mediators that induce chronic inflammation and promote myofibroblast differentiation while M2 macrophages are wound healing cells that suppress inflammation and regulate fibroblast activity. The fibrotic tissue is developed by myofibroblasts which produce collagen in an unregulated fashion. Collagen thickening and biomaterial encapsulation decreases efficacy and sensitive of biomedical devices. We investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of capsaicin, PGE2 and polydopamine surface modification on macrophages and myofibroblasts. Capsaicin and PGE2 reduced poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-induced fibrosis by promoting M2 macrophage phenotype to secrete anti-inflammatory IL-10 and suppressing myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Capsaicin decreased collagen by 40% and upregulated IL-10 secretion by 35% while PGE2 reduced collagen by 55% after 14 days of implantation and 40% less collagen after 42 days. PDA was used to bind an anti-fibrotic compound to the surface of a poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS-PDA) to reduce fibrosis. However, PDMS-PDA controls gave an unexpected result by reducing fibrosis to the same extent as anti-fibrotic compound bound PDMS- v PDA. PDA modification reduced cellularity by 50% and significantly decreased collagen thickness by 30%. Overall, our results showed that biomaterial-induced fibrosis can be reduced by promoting M2 macrophage activity and inhibiting myofibroblast differentiation. This research demonstrates three compounds that have potential to reduce fibrosis and extend the lifetime and efficacy of implantable biomedical devices.|
|Appears in Collections:||Open Access Dissertations and Theses|
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