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|Title:||Epigenetic mechanisms underlying the upregulation of melatonin receptor expression by valproic acid|
|Keywords:||Chromatin remodelling;Histone acetylation;Valproic acid;HDAC inhibition;Melatonin MT1 receptor promoter|
|Abstract:||Melatonin is an indoleamine hormone with neuromodulatory and neuroprotective properties. It mediates many of its effects by its two G protein-coupled receptors, MT1 and MT2. We have shown that valproic acid (VPA) induces melatonin receptor expression in cultured rat C6 glioma cells, and in the rat hippocampus. VPA is known to affect gene expression through several mechanisms, including the modulation of intracellular kinase pathways and/or transcription factors, as well as the inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. In this study, we show that HDAC inhibitors of distinct chemical classifications, including suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA) and 4-(dimethylamino)-n-[7-(hydroxyamino)-7-oxoheptyl] benzamide (M344), parallel the effects of VPA on MT1 induction in vitro. However valpromide, a VPA analogue that lacks the ability to inhibit HDAC activity, does not. The observed increase in MT1 expression by VPA is matched by an increase in global histone H3 acetylation. More importantly, an enrichment of histone H3 acetylation occurs along the rat MT1 promoter following treatment with VPA, indicating that histone acetylation and chromatin remodelling are a primary mechanism underlying this induction. Independent of VPA, the rat MT1 gene may be regulated by a number of intracellular kinase pathways and transcription factors, which are also targeted by VPA. KG501-mediated CREB inhibition did not block MT1 upregulation by VPA. Blockade experiments targeting the PKC, PI3K/AKT, or GSK3β signaling pathways suggest that VPA induces melatonin receptor expression independent of these intracellular signaling cascades as well. The relevance of melatonin receptor upregulation was assessed using in vivo VPA and melatonin combination treatments on neuroprotective gene expression. The results of this study provide evidence that expression of the melatonin receptor is epigenetically induced by VPA by means of promoter histone acetylation. Melatonin receptor upregulation by VPA, or other HDAC inhibitors, may represent a therapeutic strategy for the management of several nervous system disorders.|
|Appears in Collections:||Open Access Dissertations and Theses|
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|Bahna_Sarra_G_2016June_PhD.pdf||Bahna_Sarra_G_2016June_PhD||5.27 MB||Adobe PDF||View/Open|
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