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|Title:||PRESSURE RELATED STANDARDS AND PERFORMANCE OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS|
|Keywords:||Pressure standards;Water distribution systems;Energy use;Leakage;Pipe breaks;Hydraulic transient|
|Abstract:||The standard design approach of water distribution systems requires that pressure at any point in the system is maintained within a range whereby the maximum pressure is not exceeded so that the likelihood of a pipe burst is reduced and the minimum pressure is always maintained or exceeded to ensure adequate flows for satisfying expected demands. High pressure systems tend to cause more frequent pipe breaks and an increase in energy use and leakage. Low pressure systems cause consumer complaints, make the system more susceptible to negative pressures, and possibly to the ingress of contaminants during transient events. The overall goal of establishing pressure standards is to balance these opposing tendencies to achieve a safe, reliable, and economic operation of the system. Yet, there are no universally acceptable or established rules or guidelines for establishing a pressure standard for water distribution system design, and few studies have considered whether the traditional standards are still applicable in modern systems. This study has made a critical appraisal on what pressure standards mean, where they are violated, and where they need revision to achieve a comprehensive picture about what the pressure standards really mean. The research also highlights the inter-related issues associated with pressure criteria. Assessment of the relationships governing water pressure, leakage, energy use and economics is realized via the analytical investigation of single pipes and the simulation of representative networks using the steady state analysis software EPANET 2. The role of minimum pressure standards, storage, pumping strategy, and resource prices on the energy and water loss of systems is analysed and assessed. In anticipation that pressure contributes to pipe break rates, a probabilistic approach considering uncertain water demand and pipe’s roughness modeled with a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) algorithm is presented. This study also explores how the minimum pressure standards affect transient pressures and reviews how destructive transient pressures may be controlled to limit reduced pressure surges within acceptable limits even when the minimum steady state pressure is relatively low. In order to place the research in practical context, this study develops a surge limit control algorithm for the design of a portable device for limiting the down-surge pressures by creating a pressure control boundary in a pipe system during hydrant operations. This boundary is established using the portable control device to safely operate a hydrant in a water distribution system. This study also highlights the notion that high level of pressure standards may lead to a troublesome squandering of water and energy and may disrupt the performance of water distribution systems. Given the too often degraded nature of water supply infrastructures, the on-going challenges of urban growth, and the increased stress on natural resources, the significant benefits of better controlling water pressure are not only welcome but urgently needed.|
|Appears in Collections:||Open Access Dissertations and Theses|
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|Ghorbanian-Vali-201603-Ph.D.pdf||PRESSURE RELATED STANDARDS AND PERFORMANCE OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS||2.04 MB||Adobe PDF||View/Open|
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