Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
|Title:||PROCOAGULANT EFFECTS OF PLATINUM-BASED LUNG CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY AGENTS|
|Department:||Medical Sciences (Blood and Cardiovascular)|
|Abstract:||Chemotherapy-associated thrombosis is a common complication in cancer patients. Cancer patients have a 5- to 7-fold increased risk for a thrombotic event compared to healthy individuals. While the overall risk for a thrombotic event in lung cancer patients is approximately 1.4%, the rates of thrombosis vary depending on the stage of the disease and the chemotherapeutic agents used. Activation of coagulation after initiation of chemotherapy has been reported in clinical studies. However, the mechanisms by which lung cancer chemotherapy agents modulate coagulation in lung cancer patients are not completely understood. The focus of this thesis is to investigate the mechanisms by which chemotherapy agents cisplatin, carboplatin, gemcitabine, and paclitaxel (in platinum-based combinations) induce procoagulant effects utilizing in vitro and in vivo approaches. First, we investigated the mechanisms by which lung cancer chemotherapy modulates cell-surface tissue factor (TF) activity on endothelial cells (HUVEC), monocytes, and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) A549 cells. We observed that treatment of all three cell lines with platinum-based lung cancer chemotherapy increased cell surface TF activity. We found that the increased TF activity on chemotherapy-treated monocytes was due to increased phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, whereas the increased TF activity on HUVEC and A549 cells was due to protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)-mediated decryption of TF. These studies demonstrate that lung cancer chemotherapy agents can exert procoagulant effects by increasing PS exposure and by inducing TF decryption on healthy and tumour cells. Next, we determined the effects of lung cancer chemotherapy on the generation of microparticles (MP) and the impact of MPs on thrombin generation. Our in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate that lung cancer chemotherapy agents increase the generation of TF- and PS-positive MPs from tumour cells and that the MPs contribute to thrombin generation in a FVII-dependent manner. We also investigated the role of cell-free DNA (CFDNA) in mediating procoagulant effects induced by lung cancer chemotherapy agents. We found that lung cancer chemotherapy agents induce CFDNA release from healthy host neutrophils and that this leads to additional generation of thrombin by the intrinsic pathway of coagulation. Lastly, CFDNA levels have been shown to increase in cancer models through formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Formation of NETs by NETosis, a process by which neutrophils release extracellular web-like structures composed of DNA, histones, and granular proteins, is dependent on histone citrullination by protein arginine deaminase-4 (PAD-4). In addition, PAD4 inhibition prevents NET formation. Therefore, we wanted to demonstrate that the neutrophil-derived CFDNA release induced by lung cancer chemotherapy is PAD4-dependent. Chemotherapy treatment of PAD4 knockout mice failed to increase CFDNA levels. Furthermore, chemotherapy-treatment did not increase thrombin generation in PAD4 knockout mice. This suggests that chemotherapy-induced CFDNA release occurs through NETosis. In conclusion, lung cancer chemotherapy leads to increased thrombin generation which occurs through increased TF decryption, MP generation, and CFDNA release. Therefore, lung cancer chemotherapy results in simultaneous activation of the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of coagulation. These studies provide novel insight into the mechanisms of lung cancer chemotherapy-associated thrombosis.|
|Appears in Collections:||Open Access Dissertations and Theses|
Files in This Item:
|Lysov Z PhD Thesis FINAL Dec 2015.pdf||Thesis||1.24 MB||Adobe PDF||View/Open|
Items in MacSphere are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.