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|Title:||ASSESSMENT OF THE CLUMPED ISOTOPE COMPOSITION OF CALCITE FOR PALEOTHERMOMETERY|
|Department:||Geography and Earth Sciences|
|Abstract:||Clumped isotope paleothermometry defines carbonate formation temperature based upon the relative abundance of the 13C18O16O isotopologue within CO2 (Δ47) formed through phosphoric acid digestion of carbonates. When precipitated in equilibrium, resultant Δ47 values are inversely-proportional to growth temperature, where 13C18O16O is more abundant at lower temperatures. To precisely define Δ47 values, a rigorous analytical protocol is required to: (1) minimize CO2-H2O isotope exchange during acid digestion; (2) purify CO2 to remove contaminants; (3) quantify the raw Δ47 value using a mass spectrometer configured for m/z 44 – 49; and (4) normalize the raw Δ47 value to account for machine-specific isotopic scrambling and Δ47 vs. δ47 non-linearity. Amongst laboratories with well-established analytical protocols, substantial disagreement still exists between proposed clumped isotope calibrations at low temperatures. To investigate the source of this discrepancy, calcite was precipitated between 15 – 40 °C from a HCO3-(aq)-dominated solution using an upgraded constant addition technique. This technique is the first to provide simultaneous control of δ18OH2O and δ13CDIC values of parent solution. Observed oxygen isotope fractionation between calcite and water is in agreement with Kim and O’Neil (1997), providing robust evidence of calcite precipitation in oxygen isotope equilibrium. Δ47 values were determined using McMaster’s clumped isotope facility, yielding the following calibration: Δ47-RF = 0.0351 (± 0.0021) × 106/T2 + 0.2982 (± 0.0233) This calibration observes a similar temperature dependency to theoretical models as well as ‘shallow’ slope experimental studies. To provide context to experimental calibrations with ‘steep’ slopes, we consider the non-equilibrium isotope effects of CO2 hydration/hydroxylation and HCO3- dehydration/dehydroxylation reactions on precipitating calcite. We propose that low temperature calcites primarily responsible for the ‘steep’ slopes of certain calibrations have partially inherited the disequilibrium isotope composition of DIC due to significant non-equilibrium isotope effects associated with the aforementioned CO2 hydration/hydroxylation and HCO3- dehydration/dehydroxylation reactions.|
|Appears in Collections:||Open Access Dissertations and Theses|
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|Spencer_Christopher_J_2015-Sept_MSc.pdf||Thesis - final version||2.08 MB||Adobe PDF||View/Open|
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