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|Title:||Neuroprotection in a rotenone model of Parkinson's disease|
|Keywords:||Parkinson's disease, rotenone, intrastriatal, valproic acid, melatonin, neuroprotection, tyrosine hydroxylase, alpha-synuclein, medial forebrain bundle, substantia nigra, striatum|
|Abstract:||The pesticide/neurotoxin, rotenone, has been shown to cause systemic inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity, with consequent degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway, as observed in Parkinson’s disease. A novel intrastriatal rotenone model of Parkinson’s disease was used to examine the neuroprotective effects of valproic acid (VPA) and melatonin, both of which are known to induce neurotrophic gene expression in the central nervous system via mechanisms which may involve epigenetic modulation. In these studies, sham or lesioned rats were treated with either vehicle, VPA (4mg/mL), or melatonin (4µg/mL) in drinking water. Results from a forelimb asymmetry test indicated a significant decrease in use of the contralateral forelimb in rotenone-infused animals, in the third week post-surgery, which was abolished by VPA treatment. Apomorphine administration resulted in significantly higher ipsilateral rotation in rotenone-lesioned (12µg) animals, as compared to controls, which was attenuated by melatonin treatment. Subsequent immunohistochemical examination revealed a decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity within the striatum and substantia nigra of rotenone-infused animals. VPA or melatonin treatment prevented this decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase in the striatum and substantia nigra. Stereological cell counting indicated a significant decrease in dopamine neurons within the substantia nigra of rotenone-treated animals. Importantly, this loss of dopamine neurons in rotenone-infused animals was blocked by chronic VPA or melatonin treatment. A third study explored whether rotenone infusion into the medial forebrain bundle and substantia nigra in mice could provide a model of Parkinson's disease. Densitometric analysis revealed a significant depletion of tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence within the ipsilateral striatum and substantia nigra of lesioned animals, and a significant bilateral overexpression of α-synuclein in the substantia nigra, as compared to control animals. These novel findings support the use of intracranial rotenone as a Parkinsonian model, and provide a solid platform for future combinatorial therapeutic approaches with VPA and melatonin.|
|Appears in Collections:||Open Access Dissertations and Theses|
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