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|Title:||Preparation and Characterization of SnO₂ Thin Films and Radiation Damage Studies.|
|Keywords:||materials science;SnO₂; thin film;radiation damage;preparation; characterization|
|Abstract:||<p> Part One deals with thin films of SnO₂ which were prepared by ion-beam sputtering, reactive sputtering and anodic oxidation. The films were found to be either amorphous or crystalline in their prepared state. </p> <p> The structure of the as-deposited amorphous films, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy, presented interesting features: there was a continuous structure in the case of high-temperature deposition, whereas an "island structure" was revealed in the case of low-temperature deposition. Furthermore, heat treatment of films having an "island structure" showed this structure to be maintained provided the heating was done with unsupported films, while the structure became continuous when heat treatment was performed on supported specimens. </p> <p> The crystalline form of the films has been worked out, and found to generally be cassiterite; nevertheless a phase different from cassiterite has been occasionally noticed during this work. In some cases it could be tentatively identified as SnO, while other cases it remains unidentified. Crystallization temperatures found here are somewhat different from those indicated in the literature, namely: 500, 300, 225ºC according to substrate temperature and nature and type of heat treatment. Anodic oxidation of tin has been performed(apparently for the first time) in a non-solvent electrolyte, the films being consistently crystalline. </p> <p> The results obtained in the case of films deposited on water-cooled substrates, have revealed a dependence of film structure on film thickness and this effect has been confirmed in supplementary experiments. Thus thick films appear to crystallize spontaneously at room temperature. </p> <p> Part Two deals with radiation damage studies. Our experiments on krypton-ion bombarded SnO₂ films show that amorphous specimens remain amorphous following ion bombardment. The electron-microscope evidence of whether crystalline SnO₂ is amorphized by ion bombardment was tentatively negative, while the gas-release evidence was strongly negative. </p> Part Three deals with diffusion in inert-gas implanted SnO₂. In the first section we give the theoretical background that enabled us to deduce from our experiments rough estimates of the melting temperature, self-diffusion temperature. and activation-energy for self-diffusion of the less mobile ion in SnO₂. In particular, we obtain the following results: </p> <p> T_melting = 2600 - 3000ºK </p> <p> T_self-diffusion = 1480 - 1870ºK for a 2 min. time scale and 134±44Å distance scale. </p> <p> ∆H_self-diffusion = 87,200 - 131,00 cal/mole </p> <p> Note that the melting point for tine oxide is variously reported in different handbooks to lie between 1400 and 2200ºK. From a comparison with other work we have concluded that our value for ∆H is very likely that for oxygen-ion diffusion. </p>|
|Appears in Collections:||Open Access Dissertations and Theses|
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