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|Title:||The Espanola Formation: A Proterozoic Carbonate North of Lake Huron, Ontario|
|Authors:||Eggertson, E. Bruce|
|Advisor:||Risk, M. J.|
Clifford, P. M.
|Keywords:||Proterozoic Espanola Formation;Huronian Sequence;Geneva Lake;lithology;Espanola;cycle of deposition;glacial advance and retreat;calcium carbonate precipitation|
|Abstract:||The Proterozoic Espanola Formation (Huronian Sequence) was studied at Geneva Lake, Ontario, 45 miles north-west of Sudbury. A major lithological change exists in the Espanola Formation between this area and the type section on the north shore of Lake Huron, 75 miles to the south. Unusually pure (95 percent) microcrystalline limestones and dolostones occur in almost equal abundance to the calcareous siltstones which are the characteristic lithology of the formation in its type section. The existence and position of a fine grained deposit such as the Espanola in a stratigraphic sequence which consists mostly of glacial and periglacial deposits is unusual. It is suggested that this fine-grained deposit was an integral part of a cycle of deposition resulting from glacial advance and retreat and that its sedimentary basin was created by marine transgression in response to a glacial retreat. Spatial distribution of the Espanola Formation suggests that its sedimentary basin may have consisted of at least three environmental zones. At least one of these zones may represent a glacial melt-water lake. A microfossil search was carried out with negative results. This made speculation necessary in determining the origin of the calcareous fraction of the Espanola Formation. A mechanism is suggested whereby calcium carbonate is precipitated inorganically, as a result of photosynthesis by anaerobic bacteria. This mechanism can be observed in the present. If it is true, then the Espanola Formation may represent a time marker for the first presence of free oxygen in the atmosphere.|
|Appears in Collections:||Open Access Dissertations and Theses|
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|Eggertson_E_Bruce_1975May_Bachelors.pdf||Thesis||29.33 MB||Adobe PDF||View/Open|
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