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|Title:||Integrating Optical Emitters into Silicon Photonic Waveguides|
|Keywords:||Silicon light emitters;optical waveguides;planar waveguides integration;Edge emission;photonic circuits|
|Abstract:||<p>This thesis reports work targeting the integration of Si light emitters with optical waveguides. Such integrated devices would find utility in a number of applications including telecommunications, optical interconnects, and biological and chemical sensors. Much research has been directed by others on how to improve the emission efficiency and achieve lasing in VLSI (very large scale integration) compatible sources. Here, the focus is on how such devices can be integrated with planar waveguides. Two enhancement techniques were selected for potential integration; defect engineering (DE), and Si nanocrystals (Si-nc) embedded in Si02• Defect engineered light emitting diodes (LEDs) made on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and emitting at 1.1 μm were successfully demonstrated. In addition, surface photoluminescence from SOI was analyzed to account for interference from the SOI cavity. However, it was determined that the emission efficiency of defect engineered LEDs studied during the course of this work is below that which was reported previously, and that the fabrication procedure thus suffers from irreproducibility. Barring an enormous advancement in the DE technique, it is concluded that the emission efficiency is too small to make use of its integration potential. </p><p>A more successful approach was obtained from the Si-nc system fabricated using electron-cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (ECR-PECVD). Optically pumped edge emitting devices were designed, fabricated and characterized. The devices are comprised of Si-ncs emitting at 800 nm, integrated with slab silicon nitride waveguides. This work is the first report of edge emission from Si-ncs integrated with silicon nitride waveguides. Edge emission and waveguide properties were characterized in the ~850 nm emission band of the Si-ncs. The edge emission was well described as a propagating mode, attenuated primarily by the Si-nc film. Propagation losses of a typical air/Si-nc/SiNx/Si02 waveguide were measured to be 11 ± 2 dB/cm and 20 ± 2 dB/cm at 850 nm in the TE and TM polarizations respectively. A wavelength dependent loss of -0.14 ± 0.03 dB/(cm*nm) was found to exist in the material loss of Si-nc films. In addition, the Si-nc films were found to undergo a partially recoverable photo-induced degradation of PL efficiency during exposure to pump light. Processing techniques compatible with both high efficiency Si-nc and low loss silicon nitride were developed and described. A two-sectioned photonic device was also designed, fabricated and characterized. The device contained an optically pumped Si-nc emitting waveguide section integrated with a low loss silicon nitride slab waveguide. The potential for optically pumped Si-nc emitters integrated with silicon nitride photonic circuits thus appears promising.</p>|
|Appears in Collections:||Open Access Dissertations and Theses|
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|Milgram, Joel.pdf||Main Thesis||10.72 MB||Adobe PDF||View/Open|
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