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|Title:||Modeling and State of Charge Estimation of Electric Vehicle Batteries|
|Keywords:||Lithium-Ion Batteries, electrochemical battery model, Battery management systems (BMS), genetic algorithm optimization, parameter identification, state of charge estimation, interacting multiple models (IMM), state of charge (SOC) , state of health (SOH), filtration|
|Abstract:||Electric vehicles have received substantial attention in the past few years since they provide a more sustainable, efficient, and greener transportation alternative in comparison to conventional fossil-fuel powered vehicles. Lithium-Ion batteries represent the most important component in the electric vehicle powertrain and thus require accurate monitoring and control. Many challenges are still facing the mass market production of electric vehicles; these challenges include battery cost, range anxiety, safety, and reliability. These challenges can be significantly mitigated by incorporating an efficient battery management system. The battery management system is responsible for estimating, in real-time, the battery state of charge, state of health, and remaining useful life in addition to communicating with other vehicle components and subsystems. In order for the battery management system to effectively perform these tasks, a high-fidelity battery model along with an accurate, robust estimation strategy must work collaboratively at various power demands, temperatures, and states of life. Lithium ion batteries are considered in this research. For these batteries, electrochemical models represent an attractive approach since they are capable of modeling lithium diffusion processes and track changes in lithium concentrations and potentials inside the electrodes and the electrolyte. Therefore, electrochemical models provide a connection to the physical reactions that occur in the battery thus favoured in state of charge and state of health estimation in comparison to other modeling techniques. The research presented in this thesis focuses on advancing the development and implementation of battery models, state of charge, and state of health estimation strategies. Most electrochemical battery models have been verified using simulation data and have rarely been experimentally applied. This is because most electrochemical battery model parameters are considered proprietary information to their manufacturers. In addition, most battery models have not accounted for battery aging and degradation over the lifetime of the vehicle using real-world driving cycles. Therefore, the first major contribution of this research is the formulation of a new battery state of charge parameterization strategy. Using this strategy, a full-set of parameters for a reduced-order electrochemical model can be estimated using real-world driving cycles while accurately calculating the state of charge. The developed electrochemical model-based state of charge parameterization strategy depends on a number of spherical shells (model states) in conjunction with the final value theorem. The final value theorem is applied in order to calculate the initial values of lithium concentrations at various shells of the electrode. Then, this value is used in setting up constraints for the optimizer in order to achieve accurate state of charge estimation. Developed battery models at various battery states of life can be utilized in a real-time battery management system. Based on the developed models, estimation of the battery critical surface charge using a relatively new estimation strategy known as the Smooth Variable Structure Filter has been effectively applied. The technique has been extended to estimate the state of charge for aged batteries in addition to healthy ones. In addition, the thesis introduces a new battery aging model based on electrochemistry. The model is capable of capturing battery degradation by varying the effective electrode volume, open circuit potential-state of charge relationship, diffusion coefficients, and solid-electrolyte interface resistance. Extensive experiments for a range of aging scenarios have been carried out over a period of 12 months to emulate the entire life of the battery. The applications of the proposed parameterization method combined with experimental aging results significantly improve the reduced-order electrochemical model to adapt to various battery states of life. Furthermore, online and offline battery model parameters identification and state of charge estimation at various states of life has been implemented. A technique for tracking changes in the battery OCV-R-RC model parameters as battery ages in addition to estimation of the battery SOC using the relatively new Smooth Variable Structure Filter is presented. The strategy has been validated at both healthy and aged battery states of life using driving scenarios of an average North-American driver. Furthermore, online estimation of the battery model parameters using square-root recursive least square (SR-RLS) with forgetting factor methodology is conducted. Based on the estimated model parameters, estimation of the battery state of charge using regressed-voltage-based estimation strategy at various states of life is applied. The developed models provide a mechanism for combining the standalone estimation strategy that provide terminal voltage, state of charge, and state of health estimates based on one model to incorporate these different aspects at various battery states of life. Accordingly, a new model-based estimation strategy known as the interacting multiple model (IMM) method has been applied by utilizing multiple models at various states of life. The method is able to improve the state of charge estimation accuracy and stability, when compared with the most commonly used strategy. This research results in a number of novel contributions, and significantly advances the development of robust strategies that can be effectively applied in real-time on-board of a battery management system.|
|Appears in Collections:||Open Access Dissertations and Theses|
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|AHMED Ryan - Battery Modeling and SOC Estimation for EV Applications - PhD Thesis - SGS Final Submission.pdf||PhD Thesis||5.63 MB||Adobe PDF||View/Open|
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