Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
|Title:||The Effects of Chronic Acetaminophen Exposure on the Kidney, Gill, and Liver in Rainbow Trout|
|Advisor:||Wilson, Joanna Y.|
|Abstract:||Environmental pharmaceutical concentrations have become a rising concern and are thought to increase with the aging human population. Currently, pharmaceutical concentrations range from ngL-1 to µgL-1, however their effect on non-target aquatic species is poorly understood. Using a time course exposure, acetaminophen exposure at an environmentally relevant concentration of 10 µgL-1 caused histological changes in the gill, kidney, and liver of rainbow trout as early as two weeks after exposure began and increased exposure time increased the severity of effect. Histological changes seen after exposure of fish to acetaminophen at 10 µgL-1 (low) and 30 µgL-1 (high) coincided with functional changes in the gill, kidney, and liver. Oxygen consumption decreased in the low and high groups, especially at higher swimming speeds, and critical swimming speed decreased in both low and high groups. Gills had a decrease in lamellar spacing at both concentrations and lamellar area was decreased in only the high group. Urine analyses revealed an increase in urine flow rate and increased urine concentration of sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, urea, ammonia, glucose, and protein in both exposure groups in a dose dependent manner. No changes in glomerular filtration rate or urine magnesium concentrations were seen. Lastly, this research provides evidence of compensation for the loss of ions and glucose in the urine. Plasma concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and glucose were unchanged with exposure. Gill Na+-K+-ATPase activity was increased and liver glycogen was decreased in the high dose group. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to link histological changes in major organs with quantifiable changes in organ function after pharmaceutical exposure. This knowledge will contribute to understanding the extent of impacts caused by the important pharmaceutical acetaminophen on aquatic species’ health.|
|Appears in Collections:||Open Access Dissertations and Theses|
Files in This Item:
|THE EFFECTS OF CHRONIC ACETAMINOPHEN EXPOSURE ON THE KIDNEY, GILL AND LIVER IN RAINBOW TROUT.pdf||1.42 MB||Adobe PDF||View/Open|
Items in MacSphere are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.