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|Title:||An Enhanced Latent Heat Thermal Storage System Using Electrohydrodynamics (EHD)|
|Keywords:||Thermal storage;Electrohydrodynamics;Latent heat;Energy balance;Numerical;phase change material;Energy Systems;Heat Transfer, Combustion;Other Materials Science and Engineering;Other Mechanical Engineering;Energy Systems|
|Abstract:||<p>Electrohydrodynamics (EHD) was used to enhance the thermal performance of a latent heat thermal storage cell by reducing the charging time for a given amount of latent heat stored. Paraffin wax, which is an organic dielectric commercially available material was selected as the phase change material (PCM).</p> <p>Electric field was applied into the cell by using 9 electrodes kept at -8 kV in an effort to establish EHD forces inside the PCM. The EHD effect was studied in an originally conduction dominated melting environment. That was achieved by the cell design which promoted unidirectional melting downwards to prevent natural convection from occurring by assuring a thermally stratified molten phase. The target was to study the EHD mechanisms of enhancement with less interfering physics.</p> <p>Melting was studied under constant heat flux boundary condition. The temporal thermal profile of the surface heater and the melt front location were used to assess the EHD effect by comparing it to a 0 kV (no EHD) case.</p> <p>It was found that by using EHD (-8 kV), the time required to melt 7 mm thickness of the PCM can be reduced by 40 % when compared to 0 kV case. Through a four hour experiment time, the amount of molten PCM can be increased by 29 % by using EHD compared to 0 kV. The EHD power consumption was less than 0.17 W which is equivalent to 2.4 % of the thermal energy stored in the PCM.</p> <p>A new phenomena was discovered when applying EHD in the tested cell, which is Solid Extraction, where the solid dendrites within the mushy zone were extracted from the mushy zone into the liquid bulk towards regions of higher electric field.</p> <p>A new criteria was developed to quantify the EHD enhancement level and was called EHD enhancement factor. An enhancement factor up to 13 could be reached by using EHD. The effect of changing the heat flux on the enhancement factor was investigated, and it was found that the enhancement factor decreased by increasing the heat flux.</p> <p>Numerical simulations were performed in an effort to understand the EHD mechanisms of enhancement. The static electric field distribution, the interfacial extraction forces and the body forces acting on suspended dendrites were evaluated. The results of numerical simulations were supported by the high speed imaging and the experimental data to explain the EHD mechanisms of enhancement and the regions where solid dendrites extraction happened.</p> <p>Finally an analytical model was developed to estimate the energy stored in the different components of the tested latent heat storage cell and to estimate the amount of energy lost to the surroundings in order to quantify the accuracy of the experiment and a maximum of 18 % heat loss was estimated.</p>|
|Appears in Collections:||Open Access Dissertations and Theses|
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