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|Title:||Energy and water balance in a deciduous forest in southern Ontario|
|Advisor:||Arain, M. Altaf|
|Department:||Geography and Earth Sciences|
|Keywords:||Energy fluxes;Evaporation;Energy budget;Deciduous forest;Eddy-covariance;Forest-atmosphere exchange;Other Forestry and Forest Sciences;Other Forestry and Forest Sciences|
|Abstract:||<p><h1>This study discusses energy and water balance in an 80-year-old deciduous Carolinian forest in the Great Lakes region in southern Ontario, Canada. The eddy covariance technique and associated meteorological and soil variables were used to make a year-round measurements of energy and water vapour fluxes from January-December,2012. This site is part of the Turkey Point Flux Station and global Fluxnet. The linear relationship between daily turbulent (sensible heat (H), latent heat (LE)) and radiative fluxes (net radiation (Rn),soil heat (G) and canopy heat storage ( S)) has a the slope of 0.75 (intercept of -15.8 Wm<sup>-2</sup>, and a correlation coefficient, r<sup>2</sup> of 0.93) indicating a 25% deficiency in energy balance closure. The mean value of canopy albedo was 0.16 during the growing season. Maximum daily evapotranspiration (E) rate was 3.8 mm day<sup>-1</sup> in June, when growing is at its peak in the region. Total annual E was 400 mm, which accounted for 42% of the total annual precipitation of 950 mm. The water storage in upper soil column (1.0 m depth) was approximately 100 mm, indicating that about 450 mm of water was lost from the forest as runoff. Apart from radiation, vapour pressure deficit (D) was the dominant control on E. Maximum value of bulk surface conductance (Gs) was about 18.5 mm s<sup>-1</sup>. Gs linearly decreased in response to increase in D. The minimum Gs values were recorded when D was maximum, i.e. 3 to 3.5 kPa. Gs also showed high sensitivity to the volumetric soil water content (ϴ), during dry periods, for example the drought event in 2012. In the growing season, the typical value of Priestley-Taylor α ranged between 0.8 to 1.2 with a maximum of 1.8, indicating a wet deciduous forest. However, the LE/Rn relationship showed a linear increase with increasing D with a low (0.26) slope, indicating a conservative response of forest E to atmospheric demand. This study provides insight into energy partitioning, the water balance and their controls in this Carolinian deciduous forest. A better understanding of evapotranspiration processes and their controls in these forests would help to better quantify water availability at local and regional scales and to evaluate the impacts of future climate change on water resources in the region.</h1></p>|
|Appears in Collections:||Open Access Dissertations and Theses|
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